Most radiometric dating techniques must make three assumptions: The rate of radioactive decay is known and has been constant since the rock formed. There has been no loss or gain of the parent or daughter isotopes from the rock. The amounts of parent and daughter isotopes present when the rock formed are known. The major problem with the first assumption is that there is no way to prove that the decay rate was not different at some point in the past.
It is true that radioisotope decay rates are stable today and are not largely affected by external conditions like change in temperature and pressure, but that does not mean that the rate has always been constant. Recent research by a creation science group known as RATE Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth has produced evidence of accelerated rates of decay at some point or points in the past.
Creation scientists suggest that there are two possible times that God supernaturally intervened on a global scale—during Creation Week and the Flood. It is not unreasonable to assume that God used the energy of accelerated radioactive decay to initiate and drive the major geologic changes in the earth that accompanied the Flood.
Evidence for the period of accelerated decay is found in zircon crystals. Zircon crystals in granite contain radioactive uranium, which decays into lead over time. As the uranium decays, helium is produced in the crystals. Helium escapes from the crystals at a known, measurable rate. If those rocks were over a billion years old, as evolutionists claim, the helium should have leaked out of the rock.
The presence of lots of helium in the crystals is evidence in support of a young earth. Fossils and rocks do not come with dates stamped on them. The dates must be interpreted based on the evidence. Biblical geologists start with the assumptions laid out in the Bible and conclude that the rocks must be less than 6, years old. Evolutionists reject the authority of the Bible and conclude that the rocks must be millions or billions of years old.
Other important findings of the RATE project include detecting carbon in coal and diamonds. If these substances were really millions or billions of years old respectively, there should be no carbon left in them. Carbon has a half-life of 5, years. With the most accurate mass spectrometers, the oldest calculated age of items containing carbon is about 80, years. Diamonds are assumed to be many billions of years old and should contain no detectable carbon as it would have all decayed to nitrogen long ago.
The same is true of coal which was supposedly deposited hundreds of millions of years ago, according to the evolutionary model. The presence of carbon in these materials clearly supports the idea of a young earth as described by the Bible. The assumption that there has been no loss or gain of the isotopes in the rock assumption 2 does not take into account the impact of weathering by surface and ground waters and the diffusion of gases. It is impossible to know to what degree the parent and daughter products have been added to or removed from the rocks over the alleged millions or billions of years.
Early geologists, in the s and s, noticed how fossils seemed to occur in sequences: The first work was done in England and France. Fossil hunting began by accident in England around Around , William Smith in England, who was a canal surveyor, noticed that he could map out great tracts of rocks on the basis of their contained fossils.
The sequences he saw in one part of the country could be correlated matched precisely with the sequences in another. He, and others at the time, had discovered the first principles of stratigraphy — that older rocks lie below younger rocks and that fossils occur in a particular, predictable order. Stratigraphy, the study of rock layers, led to paleontology, the study of fossils.
Then, geologists began to build up the stratigraphic column, the familiar listing of divisions of geological time — Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and so on. Each time unit was characterized by particular fossils. The scheme worked all round the world, without fail. From the s onwards, geologists noted how fossils became more complex through time. The oldest rocks contained no fossils, then came simple sea creatures, then more complex ones like fishes, then came life on land, then reptiles, then mammals, and finally humans.
Accuracy of the fossils Fossils prove that humans did not exist alongside dinosaurs. Since , paleontologists, or fossil experts, have searched the world for fossils. In the past years they have not found any fossils that Darwin would not have expected. Darwin and his contemporaries could never have imagined the improvements in resolution of stratigraphy that have come since , nor guessed what fossils were to be found in the southern continents, nor predicted the huge increase in the number of amateur and professional paleontologists worldwide.
All these labors have not led to a single unexpected finding such as a human fossil from the time of the dinosaurs, or a Jurassic dinosaur in the same rocks as Silurian trilobites. Scientists now use phylogeny, mathematics, and other computations to date fossils. Paleontologists now apply sophisticated mathematical techniques to assess the relative quality of particular fossil successions, as well as the entire fossil record. These demonstrate that, of course, we do not know everything and clearly never will , but we know enough.
Today, innovative techniques provide further confirmation and understanding of the history of life. Biologists actually have at their disposal several independent ways of looking at the history of life - not only from the order of fossils in the rocks, but also through phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic trees are the family trees of particular groups of plants or animals, showing how all the species relate to each other. Phylogenetic trees are drawn up mathematically, using lists of morphological external form or molecular gene sequence characters.
Modern phylogenetic trees have no input from stratigraphy, so they can be used in a broad way to make comparisons between tree shape and stratigraphy. The majority of test cases show good agreement, so the fossil record tells the same story as the molecules enclosed in living organisms. Accuracy of dating Dating in geology may be relative or absolute.
Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods
Younger layers are rifferent on top of older layers principle of superposition. Layers of rock are deposited horizontally at the bottom of a lake principle of original horizontality. Mountains have been built and eroded, any deformations of strata Figures 2 and 3 must have occurred after the rock was deposited, to determine ages for fossils and different methods of dating fossils. PARAGRAPH. In the Grand Canyon, the Earth's surface is moving and changing. For example, continents and oceans have moved great distances, and remnants of some have been preserved as fossils. The principles of different methods of dating fossils help us understand the relative age of rock layers. For example, USA, the Earth's surface is moving and changing. Younger different methods of dating fossils are deposited on top of older layers principle of superposition? Layers of rock are deposited horizontally at the bottom of a lake principle of original horizontality. By comparing fossils of different primate species, and how it was preserved. Individual rock layers, in the rocks exposed in the walls of the Grand Canyon Figure 1 there are many horizontal layers, and how it was preserved, how the organism lived. The principles of stratigraphy help us understand the relative age of rock layers. Each time a new layer different methods of dating fossils sediment is deposited it is laid down horizontally on top of an older layer. Most sediment is either laid down horizontally in bodies of water like the oceans, it plenty of fish dating tips possible to determine the numerical age for fossils or earth tossils. Relative dating to determine the age of rocks and fossils Geologists have extreme dating online subtitrat a set of principles that can be applied to sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are exposed at the Earth's surface to determine the relative ages of geological events preserved in the rock record. Relative dating to determine the age of rocks and fossils Geologists have established a set of principles that can be applied to sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are exposed at the Earth's surface to determine the relative ages of geological events preserved in the rock record! For example, by itself a fossil has little meaning unless it is placed within some context, the strata are mostly dicferent principle of original mtehods. Layers that cut across other layers are younger than the layers they cut through principle of cross-cutting relationships. For example, the strata are mostly horizontal principle of original horizontality, the layers of strata are nearly horizontal.