Irenaeus, Victor and Easter Victor was the 13th Bishop in Rome. He excommunicated all of the churches in Asia Minor for disagreeing with his interpretation regarding the date of the celebration of Easter. Most of the churches in Asia Minor had significant Jewish populations, while Rome had little Jewish influence.
Irenaeus addressed Victor in a letter only a fragment of which remains , warning him that if he persisted in the course on which he had entered, the effect would be to rend the Catholic Church in pieces. In or , Irenaeus travelled to Rome to meet with Victor, who received and accepted the rebukes of Irenaeus. The debate of the date of the passover continued to be handled independently by each Church until the Council of Nicea.
It was also decided at this council that the Christian Passover must not be celebrated with the Jewish Passover, which was the custom of the disciples. The Roman Emperor Constantine enforced this doctrine by the physical suppression of forms of worship he considered unorthodox. For example, the introductory note to Irenaeus' book "Against Heresies" includes the following note by the translators: In fact, the "result" was the start of oppression by the Church of Rome over all other Churches around the world.
Columba and Easter Ireland was outside of the Roman Empire, and Christianity developed independently in this region without Rome's influence. The Irish, like the Jews, had a calendar that did not agree with the Roman calendar, and celebrated Passover on a different day of the year. The life story of Columba written in the 's tells of prophecies concerning the date of Easter: But during this short time that the saint was a guest in the monastery of Clon, there were many other things also which he prophesied by the revelation of the Holy Ghost; as, for instance, about the discord which arose a long time after among the churches of Scotia Ireland , on account of the difference with regard to the Easter Feast;  Easter Sacks The Influence Of The Irish Monks After Columba's passing, Abbot Segene of Iona sent Aedan as a missionary to evangelize Northumbria England , who disputed with Pope Severinus in over the date of Easter.
Aedan converted the English simply by walking from village to village, politely conversing, and slowly winning their hearts to Christ, and established a Monastary at Lindisfarne. Aedan was succeded by Finan and then Colman. Colman was eventually evicted by the Christian Northumbrians after they accepted the Roman date of Easter which the Ionian monks strongly protested , and he returned to Iona and later established a monastary on the island of Inishbofin off the west coast of Ireland, which remained until the 10th Century.
Conomail of Iona became very involved with the Easter controversy, and was finally replaced under questionable circumstances by Dunchad. That council also brought the Syrian church into line with the Roman practice of celebrating the feast in conformity with Alexandrian custom i. The debate reappeared in the seventh century just as the Romanized church of southern England was coming into close contact with the Celtic church, long established in the northern areas of Britain, particularly Northumbria.
Pope John IV sent a letter in late C. The letter was ignored. Bede records the speeches given by the opposing sides in some detail making it clear that both sides had some claim to authority through tradition. Eventually, the Romans prevailed, persuading Oswy that the Roman church took precedence over every other church by virtue of having been founded by St. Meanwhile, in the East, the Quartodecimanii had been slowly disappearing as more churches came into conformity with the post-Nicaean, Alexandrian method of calculating the Easter date.
In , Pope Gregory XIII reformed the calendar, and with that restored the controversy over the date of Easter. By the 16th century however, the Julian calendar was out of synch with the astronomical calendar. The Julian calendar year comprised days and six hours. It was simply too long. As a result, the timing of the spring equinox had changed. In , the year of the Council of Nicaea, the equinox occurred on the 21st of March.
By the late 16th century, the equinox had moved backward ten days, to the 11th of March. Since under the rules of Nicaea, the date of Easter was calculated based on the date of the first full moon following the spring equinox, Easter itself began occurring earlier and earlier in the year. To correct this problem a number of reforms were made to the calendar including the deletion of ten days. Accordingly, Gregory issued a papal bull forcing the adoption of the new calendar. To ensure that the calendar and the seasons came back into harmony with each other, ten days were dropped when the new calendar was adopted.
Western Europeans who accepted the reform jumped from October 4th, to October 15th, overnight. Orthodox churches process with a symbolic 'bier' on Good Friday. Of course, not everyone accepted the change. Western Protestant countries held out, sometimes for centuries, fearing that adoption of the new calendar would trigger a return to Roman Catholicism.
Britain and its colony in America did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until But, the strongest resistance to the new calendar came from the Eastern Orthodox churches and countries. This meant that not only were the Eastern and Western churches out of sync again in their celebration of Easter, they were no longer celebrating even fixed feasts like Christmas at the same time.
Easter date to be fixed 'within next five to 10 years'
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